The following abstracts indicate possible origins, usages, etc., of the words
Christ Christian Christianism Christianity.
Christianism was changed from an "ism" ("system of theory or practice", etc.), to an "ity" ("quality : state : degree", etc.), Christianity, with advantages from presumption, misdirection, exclusivity, propaganda, power, etc..
from: The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, Vol. VIII, 113:
-ism: "2. Forming the name of a system of theory or practice, religious, ecclesiastical, philosophical, political, social, etc., sometimes founded on the name of its subject or object, sometimes on that of its founder. Such are Alexandrianism, Arianism, Arminianism, Brahmanism, Buddhism, Calvinism, Catholicism, Chartism, Christianism, Congregationalism, Conservatism, Epicureanism, Judaism (a [ante] 1500), Latitudinarianism, Liberalism, Machiavellism, Muhammadanism, Platonism, Positivism, Presbyterianism, Protestantism, Puritanism, Puseyism, Quakerism, Quietism, Radicalism, Ritualism, Romanism, Socinianism, Taoism, Toryism, Wesleyanism, Whiggism."
from: Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1993, 1204:
-ity: "quality : state : degree <asininity> <theatricality>"
from: A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, 1996 , 2007:
"...[Greek word] CHRISTIAN, Act. Ap. II.26, 26.28, I Ep. Pet. 4.16".
"...[Greek word] to be rubbed on, used as ointment or salve....of persons, ANOINTED....used as pr. n. ["proper name"] of JESUS".
[note: no entry for Christianism, or "Christianity"].
from: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Joseph Henry Thayer, D.D., Harvard University, American Book Company, ["1899"] (c1886, Harper & Brothers) ("second edition" 1851 Jena), 672:
"CHRISTIAN, A FOLLOWER OF CHRIST: Acts. xi. 26; xxvi. 28; 1 Pet. iv. 16. THE NAME WAS FIRST GIVEN TO THE WORSHIPPERS OF JESUS BY THE GENTILES, but from the second century (Justin Mart. [e.g. apol. 1, 4 p. 55 a.; dial. c. Tryph. õ 35; cf. 'Teaching' etc. 12, 4]) onward accepted by them as a title of honor."
[note: no entry for Christianism, or "Christianity"].
reference: A Patristic Greek Lexicon, G.W.H. Lampe, D.D., Ely Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, Oxford, 1961.
[numerous entries related to "Christ"].
from: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Eerdmans, c1974 (began 1928, by Gerhard Kittel), Vol. IX, 528, 537:
"In various forms...[Greek word ("Christ")] occurs 529 times altogether in the NT,235 379 of these being in Paul alone, 22 in 1 Pt., 37 in Luke's writings (Lk. 12 and Ac. 25), 19 in the Johannine material, the others distributed among the rest of the books. It is striking how small a share of the total use is to be found in the Synpt. Gospels, 7 instances in Mk., 12 in Lk. and 17 in Mt., cf. 19 in Jn. From...[Greek word ("Christ")] also comes the term...[Greek word] "Christians" for believers in Christ (® 536, 35 ff.) and in the post-apost. period we also find...[Greek word (Christianism ["Christianity"])] to denote their faith and fellowship ® 576, 7 ff.; 577, 15 ff."
"it is possible that in Antioch...[Greek word ("Christ")] was taken to be a proper name outside the Christian community, probably the name of a god."
from: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Eerdmans, 1979 (1915), Vol. 1, 658:
'Early Use of the Term. Unlike "Christian," which occurs three times in the NT, the term "CHRISTIANITY" is not used in the Bible. IN ITS GREEK FORM IT IS PARALLEL TO "JUDAISM" (the Jews' religion; cf. Gal. 1:13f.; 2 Macc. 2:21). It seems to have been used first by Christians themselves. Our earliest authority is Ignatius of Antioch [c. 35 - c. 107 [?]], who says [written in Greek] that the glory of the Christian is "TO LIVE ACCORDING TO CHRISTIANISM" (Magn. 10 [see following (The Apostolic Fathers)]). For Christians it is a title of honor. (Cf. also Ign. Rom. 3; Philad. 6.)'
"While the word [Christianity] is not used in the NT, it obviously arises from the biblical account of the person, life, and work of Jesus as the Christ. Christianity rests on the fact that Jesus is, and claims to be, the promised Messiah. Those who accept this fact and this claim are followers or adherents of Christ (Christians), and it is natural that their faith should be called CHRISTIANISM OR CHRISTIANITY."
from: The Apostolic Fathers, With an English Translation by Kirsopp Lake, I Clement
II Clement Ignatius Polycarp Didache Barnabas, Heinemann, MCMLIX, vol. 1,
206 Greek207 English:
"Ignatius to the Magnesians, ix. 2x. 3"
[note: x. 3: the English translation has "Judaism" 3 times, and "Christianity" 2 times].
[note: the Epistles of Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35 - c. 107 [?]), are forgeries, interpolations, etc.].
from: A Latin Dictionary, Freund's Latin Dictionary, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, Oxford, 1962 (1879), 328:
"CHRISTIANISMUS": "Tert. adv. Marc. 4, 33 [c. 198 - c. 208]"
[EARLIEST LATIN REFERENCE TO CHRISTIANISM ("CHRISTIANITY")].
[note: several entries with root word christ].
from: Tertullian Adversus Marcionem [c. 198 - c. 208 (xviii)] [Tertullian c. 160 - c. 220], Edited and Translated by Ernest Evans, Books 4 and 5, Oxford, 1972, IV. 33,
446 Latin447 English:
"Iudaismus": translated: "Judaism"
"Christianismus": translated: "Christianity"
from: Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 1968, 311:
"Christiani...m. pl. Followers of Christ, Christians."
[note: only entries with root word christ].
from: The Sansoni Dictionaries, English Italian Italian English, Sansoni Editore Firenze, 1981, 156, 1219, 1306, 1774:
"Christianism...cristianesimo m." [English Italian]
"cristianesimo m. Christianity" [Italian English]
"fascismo m. (Pol) fascism"
"umanesimo m. ...Humanism."
from: Dizionario Garzanti, 1991, 176, 258, 781:
"cristianésimo s.m. Specif. cattolicesimo Anlg. [Analogo (analogous)]
cristianità [Christianity. Christendom.]."
"fascismo s.m. Gener. totalitarismo, reazione, dittatura."
"umanésimo s.m. Sin. antropocentrismo."
from: Cassell's Italian Dictionary, Macmillan, "1984?" (1958), 137, 193, 547:
"cristianesimo [cristianEsimo], n.m. Christianity (as a religion)."
"Fascismo, n.m. (Pol.) Fascism."
"umanesimo, umanismo [umanEsimo], n.m. Humanism."
from: Cassell's French Dictionary, Macmillan, 1978 (1962), 156, 338, 406:
"christianiser...To Christianize. christianisme, n.m. Christianity."
"fascisme...n. m. Fascism."
"humain...Human....humanisme, n.m. Humanism."
from: Cassell's Spanish -- English English -- Spanish Dictionary, Macmillan, 1992
(c1978), 199, 311, 358:
from: Langenscheidt's New Muret--Sanders Encyclopedic Dictionary, English-German,
Barnes & Noble, 1962, Vol. A-M, 244, 503, 644:
"Christianity...1. Christenheit f. --2. Christentum n"
"fascism...pol. Fa'schismus m."
"humanism....--2. ...Human'ismus m."
from: A Table Alphabeticall of Hard Usual English Words (1604), THE FIRST ENGLISH DICTIONARY, by Robert Cawdrey, A Facsimile Reproduction with an Introduction by Robert A. Peters, Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1966.
"christ, (g) annointed" ["(g. or gr.) standeth for Greeke."].
[note: no entries with christ as the root word].
from: John Bullokar, an English Expositor, 1616 [THE SECOND ENGLISH DICTIONARY], Scolar Press, 1967.
"Christ. The surname of our Sauiour [?], signifying anointed."
[note: no entries with Christ as the root word].
from: Henry Cockeram, The English Dictionarie, 1623, Scolar Press, 1968.
"Henry Cockeram's English Dictionaire is THE THIRD DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH, preceded only by those of Robert Cawdrey (1604) and JOHN BULLOKAR (1616)." ["Note"].
"Christianisme. The beliefe of Christians."
[note: no entry for christ. Christianisme is the only entry with the root word christ].
from: Thomas Blount Glossographia, 1656, Scolar Press, 1969.
"Thomas Blount's Glossographia was THE FOURTH ENGLISH DICTIONARY to be printed, and appeared thirty-three years after the first edition of Cockeram's English Dictionaire (1623)." ["Note"].
"Blount's Glossographia represented a considerable advance in lexicographical method over the dictionaries of [first] Cawdrey, [second] Bullokar and [third] Cockeram, and covers a larger proportion of the English vocabulary. Though he was aware of, and used particularly Bullokar's work, he is especially indebted to the Latin dictionary of Francis Holyoke (Dictionarium Etymologicum), a work frequently reprinted in the seventeenth century. Two interesting features of [fourth] Blount's work are his citation of sources (e.g. administrator, affeerours ["complex": see Blount], battalion, etc.), and his inclusion of etymologies." ["Note"].
"CHRISTIANISM (christianismus) Christianity , the being or Profession of a Christian."
[note: no entry for christ. Christianism is the only entry with the root word christ].
from: Edward Phillips, The New World of English Words, (1658) [reported (by Thomas Blount) plagiarism of Glossographia, Thomas Blount, 1656], Georg Olms Verlag, 1969.
"Christian, a proper name of women, first derived from the profession itself."
"Christianism, the profession of Christian Religion."
[note: no entry for christ. Christian and Christianism are the only entries with the root word christ].
from: Elisha Coles, An English Dictionary, 1676, Scolar Press, 1971.
"Coles' English Dictionary, 1676, depends largely for its material on Edward Phillips' New World of English Words, 1658, which in turn borrowed from Thomas Blount's Glossographia, 1656, and which was denounced by Thomas Blount as outright plagiarism of his dictionary." ["Note"].
"Christianism, -ity, the profession of the Christian Religion."
"Christ, g. anointed."
[note: Christopher ["g. Christ·carrier."], only additional entry with Christ as the root word].
[note: here, Christianism precedes Christ (order, in Greek)].
from: Nathan Bailey, An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, (1721), Georg Olms Verlag, 1969. [Quotation marks omitted].
[note: Christ is listed. A total of 12 entries, with Christ as the root word].
from: A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words are deduced from their Originals, and Illustrated in their Different Significations by Examples from the best Writers, to which are Prefixed, A History of the Language, and An English Grammar. By Samuel Johnson, A.M. In Two Volumes. Vol. I. London, Printed by W. Strahan, For J. and P. Knapton; T. and T. Longman; C. Hitch and L. Hawes; A. Millar; and R. and J. Dodsley. MDCCLV [first edition].
"Note The Present facsimile is reproduced from a copy in the possession of the Library of the University of Göttingen Shelfmark: Ling. VIII 1900 K.S." Georg Olms (Germany), 1968 . [Quotation marks omitted].
CHRI'STIAN. n. s. [Christianus, Lat.] A professor of the re-
ligon of Christ.
We christians have certainly the best and the holiest, the
wisest and most reasonable religion in the world. Tillotson.
CHRI'STIANISM. n. s. [christianismus, Lat]
1. The christian religion.
2. The nations professing christianity.
CHRISTIA'NITY. n. s. [chrêtiente, French.] The religion of
[note: no separate entry for Christ. A total of 14 entries, with Christ as the root word].
from: A Dictionary of the English Language....Samuel Johnson, A.M. In Two Volumes. Vol. I. London....MDCCLV [first edition].
"Published by Times Books Ltd., London ["Printed and bound in Japan by Toppan Printing Co., Ltd."], 1983 ." Facsimile, in 1 Vol. [Quotation marks omitted].
[compare missing portions ("blanks") of this facsimile, with above facsimile].
1. The christian
2. The nations
CHRISTIA'NITY. The religion of
[the above "blanks" appear to be the only "blanks" in the dictionary. Motivations?].
from: A Dictionary of the English Language....Samuel Johnson, A.M. In Two Volumes. Vol. 1. The Third Edition. London....MDCCLXV. [Quotation marks omitted].
CHRI'STIANISM. n. s. [christianismus, Latin.]
1. The christian religion.
2. The nations professing christianity.
CHRISTIA'NITY. n. s. [chrêtienté, French.] The religion of
[note: the above entries, in the Ninth Edition, 1805, are nearly identical. "Latin." is "Lat."; "French." is "Fr."].
from: The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, Vol. III, 180; Vol. II, 989:
Christianism: "L. christianismus"
Earliest reference for Christianism listed: 1576.
Earliest reference for Christianity (this spelling) listed: 1773.
[previous spellings, such as "cristianite", from 1303].
"Catholicism....[f. Catholic + -ism. Cf. F. catholicisme.]"
"1656 Blount Glossogr., Catholicisme .. [from Blount (to complete definition): "(catholicismus) generality or universality, or"] the orthodox Faith of the Catholick Church."
Earliest reference for Catholicism ["catholicity"] (this spelling) listed: 1647.
["Catholicisme", from 1609].
from: Encyclopedic Dictionary of Religion, The Sisters of St. Joseph of Philadelphia, Nihil Obstat: John P. Whalen S.T.D., J.D. Censor Deputatus, Imprimatur: William Cardinal Baum Archibishop of Washington D.C. February 7, 1978, Corpus Publications, 1979, Vol. A-E, 677:
"Catholicism, the universal community formed by the teaching, worship, and practice of the Catholic Church, usually understood of the RC Church, which tightens the meaning of the term to intercommunion within a common obedience and discipline. Unlike *catholicity, which refers to a quality, Catholicism refers to a system [compare: Christianism]. After the disruption of East and West, the name "Orthodox was assumed by the Greeks, the name, Catholics by the Latins; after the Reformation those who remained in communion with Rome kept the name, and Catholicism was contrasted with Protestantism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, and so forth. This is also its ordinary, noncontroversial usage in England, though Roman Catholic is the designation known to English law, and the C of E has never renounced the title of Catholic and claims to be a branch of the universal Church. The term is then given the comprehensive sense of transcending diverse communions, hence *Anglo-Catholicism ["the Oxford movement was rediscovery, not merely protesta vigorous restatement of the essentially Catholic character of the C of E." (177)]. Good manners and a sense of the occasion and knowing when not to be a stickler for words will dictate whether one centers Catholicism on Rome or leaves it with a more diffuse meaning. [T. Gilby]"
from: A Rationalist Encyclopaedia, A Book of Reference on Religion, Philosophy, Ethics, and Science, Joseph McCabe, Gryphon Books, 1971 (Watts, 1948), 100, 101:
"Estimates of the number of Christians in the Greek-Roman world at the end of the third century vary from 5,000,000 (Gibbon and Bury) to the fantastic figure of 50,000,000 (Stäudlin). But even the elaborately calculated figure of 10,000,000 given by Schultze (Geschichte des Untergangs das griechischromischen Heidenthums, 2 vols., 1892) is vitiated because he greatly over-estimates the proportion of members to priests and bishops. The correct figure is probably between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 in a total population of 100,000,000. Eighty years later St. Chrysostom [c. 347 - 407] declared in a sermon (in the year 385) that, of the 500,000 people of Antioch (one of the most Christian cities), only one-fifth were Christianshe added that they were so vicious that he doubted if a hundred of them would be saved [sources?]and in the previous year  Augustine [354 - 430 (St.)] had found Rome overwhelmingly pagan in spite of truculent imperial decrees (Confessions, VIII, 2)."
"That Christianity converted the Greeks and Romans to a higher life is a FICTION that is discredited by all contemporary Christian evidence. The Greek-Roman world was not, in fact, converted to a new religion, but compelled to embrace it. We have still in the Theodosian Code imperial decrees or rescripts of the years 341, 345, 356, 381, 383, 386, and 391 which were won by the bishops from the Emperors. They suppress all rival religions, order the closing of the temples, and impose fines, confiscation, imprisonment, or death upon any who cling to the older religions. [See Paganism.]"
[See: Theodosian Code, #8, 207; #10, 226-233, 237-240; #13, 324-326].