Christianism ("Christianity"), Etc.

 

18


Subjects (abstracts): CHRIST CHRISTIAN CHRISTIANISM CHRISTIANITY

Excursus: "'The great truth is that THERE NEVER WAS BUT ONE RELIGION IN THE WORLD! And the great lie is, the pretence to make a distinction where there never was a difference. Paganism, Judaism, Deism, CHRISTIANISM, and all other isms are but one and the self-same Ism, being each or any of them, as chance or different degrees of ingenuity have prevailed, either more or less cleverly constructed poems, or tissues of FICTION, thrown over the face of universal nature'". [Robert Taylor 1784 - 1844].

from: #3, 82, 421.: H. Cutner [1881 - 1969], The Devil's Chaplain Robert Taylor (1784-1844), The Pioneer Press, c. 1950, 67-68.



PREFACE


          The following abstracts indicate possible origins, usages, etc., of the words

CHRIST CHRISTIAN CHRISTIANISM CHRISTIANITY.


          CHRISTIANISM WAS CHANGED FROM AN "ISM" ("system of theory or practice", etc.), TO AN "ITY" ("quality : state : degree", etc.)—CHRISTIANITY, WITH ADVANTAGES FROM PRESUMPTION, MISDIRECTION, EXCLUSIVITY, PROPAGANDA, POWER, ETC.



from: The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, Vol. VIII, 113:


-ISM: "2. Forming the name of a system of theory or practice, religious, ecclesiastical, philosophical, political, social, etc., sometimes founded on the name of its subject or object, sometimes on that of its founder. Such are Alexandrianism, Arianism, Arminianism, Brahmanism, BUDDHISM, CALVINISM, CATHOLICISM, Chartism, CHRISTIANISM, Congregationalism, Conservatism, Epicureanism, JUDAISM (a [ante] 1500), Latitudinarianism, Liberalism, Machiavellism, MUHAMMADANISM, Platonism, Positivism, Presbyterianism, PROTESTANTISM, Puritanism, Puseyism, Quakerism, Quietism, Radicalism, Ritualism, Romanism, Socinianism, Taoism, Toryism, Wesleyanism, Whiggism."


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from: Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1993, 1204:


-ITY: "quality : state : degree <asininity> <theatricality>"


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 GREEK


from: A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, 1996 [1843], 2007:


"...[Greek word] CHRISTIAN, Act. Ap. II.26, 26.28, I Ep. Pet. 4.16".


"...[Greek word] to be rubbed on, used as ointment or salve....of persons, ANOINTED....used as pr. n. ["proper name"] of JESUS".


[note: no entry for Christianism, or "Christianity"].


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from: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, Joseph Henry Thayer, D.D., Harvard University, American Book Company, ["1899"] (c1886, Harper & Brothers) ("second edition" 1851 Jena), 672:


"CHRISTIAN, A FOLLOWER OF CHRIST: Acts. xi. 26; xxvi. 28; 1 Pet. iv. 16. THE NAME WAS FIRST GIVEN TO THE WORSHIPPERS OF JESUS BY THE GENTILES, but from the second century (Justin Mart. [e.g. apol. 1, 4 p. 55 a.; dial. c. Tryph. § 35; cf. 'Teaching' etc. 12, 4]) onward accepted by them as a title of honor."


[note: no entry for Christianism, or "Christianity"].


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reference: A Patristic Greek Lexicon, G.W.H. Lampe, D.D., Ely Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, Oxford, 1961.


[numerous entries related to "Christ"].


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from: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Eerdmans, c1974 (began 1928, by Gerhard Kittel), Vol. IX, 528, 537:


          "In various forms...[Greek word ("Christ")] occurs 529 times altogether in the NT,235 379 of these being in Paul alone, 22 in 1 Pt., 37 in Luke's writings (Lk. 12 and Ac. 25), 19 in the Johannine material, the others distributed among the rest of the books. It is striking how small a share of the total use is to be found in the Synpt. Gospels, 7 instances in Mk., 12 in Lk. and 17 in Mt., cf. 19 in Jn. From...[Greek word ("Christ")] also comes the term...[Greek word] "Christians" for believers in Christ (→ 536, 35 ff.) and in the post-apost. period we also find...[Greek word (CHRISTIANISM ["Christianity"])] to denote their faith and fellowship → 576, 7 ff.; 577, 15 ff."


"it is possible that in Antioch...[Greek word ("Christ")] was taken to be a proper name outside the Christian community, probably the name of a god."


364



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from: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Eerdmans, 1979 (1915), Vol. 1, 658:


"CHRISTIANITY"


'Early Use of the Term. Unlike "Christian," which occurs three times in the NT, THE TERM "CHRISTIANITY" IS NOT USED IN THE BIBLE. IN ITS GREEK FORM IT IS PARALLEL TO "JUDAISM" (the Jews' religion; cf. Gal. 1:13f.; 2 Macc. 2:21). It seems to have been used first by Christians themselves. OUR EARLIEST AUTHORITY IS IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH [c. 35 - c. 107 [?]], who says [written in Greek] that the glory of the Christian is[?] "['LET US LEARN'] TO LIVE ACCORDING TO CHRISTIANISM [χριστιανισμός]" (Magn. 10 [see The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 1959 (1867-), Vol. I, 59, 63 ("Shorter and Longer Versions")] [see following (The Apostolic Fathers)]). For Christians it is a title of honor. (Cf. also Ign. Rom. 3; Philad. 6.)'


"While the word [Christianity] is not used in the NT, it obviously arises from the biblical account of the person, life, and work of Jesus as the Christ. Christianity rests on the fact that Jesus is, and claims to be, the promised Messiah. Those who accept this fact and this claim are followers or adherents of Christ (Christians), and it is natural that their faith should be called CHRISTIANISM OR CHRISTIANITY."


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from: The Apostolic Fathers, With an English Translation by Kirsopp Lake, I Clement II Clement Ignatius Polycarp Didache Barnabas, Heinemann, MCMLIX, vol. 1, "Ignatius to the Magnesians", X, 206 Greek—207 English.

Note: the English translation has "Judaism" 3 times, and "Christianity" 2 times.

[note: the Epistles of Ignatius of Antioch (c. 35 - c. 107 [?]), are forgeries, interpolations, etc.].

 

Excursus: from: Forgery in Christianity, A Documented Record of the Foundations of the Christian Religion, By Joseph Wheless, Lately Major, Judge Advocate, U.S.A.; Associate Editor (in Section of Comparative Law) of American Bar Association Journal; Life Member of American Law Institute; etc. [Dedicated to Henry L. Mencken], Knopf, MCMXXX,

133-134:

 

'2. IGNATIUS: Saint, Bishop of Antioch (born in Syria, c. 50— died rather latitudinously "between 98 and 117" [data from CE (Catholic Encyclopedia), vii, 644])....He [Ignatius] was the subject of very extensive forgeries; fifteen Epistles bear the name of Ignatius, including one to the Virgin Mary, and her reply; two to the apostle John, others to the Philippians, Tarsians, Antiocheans, Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians,


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Romans, Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and to Polycarp, besides a forged Martyrium; the clerical forgers were very active with the name of Saint Ignatius. Of these, eight Epistles and the Martyrium are confessedly forgeries; "they are ["now"] by common consent set aside as forgeries, which were at various dates [","] and to serve special purposes, put forth under the name of the celebrated Bishop of Antioch" (ANF. [AnteNicene Fathers] i, 46; CE. vii, 645); though, says CE., "if the Martyrium is genuine, [it appears the quotation (CE, vii, 644) should begin here "] this work has been greatly interpolated." As to the seven supposed by some to be genuine, "even the genuine epistles were greatly interpolated to lend weight to the personal views of its author. For this reason they are incapable of bearing witness to the original form" (CE. vii, 645); and even the authenticity of the "genuine seven" was warmly disputed for several centuries. The dubious best that CE. can say is: "Perhaps the best evidence for ["of"] their authenticity is to be found in the letter of Polycarp to the Philippians, which mentions each of them by name...UNLESS, indeed, that of Polycarp itself be regarded as interpolated or FORGED." (Ib. p. 646.)'

[6/28/97: See: Encyclopaedia Biblica, 1902, 3488-3489 (van Manen), "Epistles of Ignatius". Comments include: "unknown writer"; "date near the middle of the second century"; etc.].

 

"OH, CHURCH OF GOD : NEVER A SCRAP OF PAPER EVEN TOUCHED BY YOU BUT WAS A LOATHSOME FORGERY TO THE GLORY OF YOUR FICTITIOUS GOD AND CHRIST!"

 

[See: Forgery, #1, 8, 9; #2, 30, 31; #3, 75, 76, 104; #4, 115, 116, 117, 129; #6, 174; #8, 205]. End of Excursus.


366



LATIN


from: A Latin Dictionary, Freund's Latin Dictionary, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, Oxford, 1962 (1879), 328:


"CHRISTIĀNISMUS": "Tert. adv. Marc. 4, 33 [c. 198 - c. 208]"

[EARLIEST LATIN REFERENCE TO CHRISTIANISM ("CHRISTIANITY")].


[note: several entries with root word christ].  [See: www.Christianismus.it].


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from: Tertullian [first Latin Father of the Church] [c. 160 - c. 220] Adversus Marcionem [c. 198 - c. 208 (xviii)], Edited and Translated by Ernest Evans, Books 4 and 5, Oxford, 1972, IV. 33, 446 Latin—447 English:


"ad quem desineret Iudaismus et a quo inciperet Christianismus"


["a line at which Judaism should cease and Christianity should begin"]


Note: "Iudaismus": translated: "Judaism"


Note: "CHRISTIANISMUS": translated: "Christianity"


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from: Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 1968, 311:


"Christiānī...m. pl. Followers of Christ, Christians."


"Christus...m. Christ."


[note: only entries with root word christ].


367



ITALIAN


from: The Sansoni Dictionaries, English — Italian Italian — English, Sansoni Editore — Firenze, 1981, 156, 1219, 1306, 1774:


"CHRISTIANISM...CRISTIANESIMO m." [English — Italian]


"CRISTIANESIMO m. Christianity" [Italian — English]


"fascismo m. (Pol) fascism"


"umanesimo m. ...Humanism."


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from: Dizionario Garzanti, 1991, 176, 258, 781:


"CRISTIANÉSIMO s.m. Specif. cattolicesimo Anlg. [Analogo (analogous)]

cristianità [Christianity. Christendom.]."


"fascismo s.m. Gener. totalitarismo, reazione, dittatura."


"umanésimo s.m. Sin. antropocentrismo."


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from: Cassell's Italian Dictionary, Macmillan, "1984?" (1958), 137, 193, 547:


"CRISTIANESIMO [cristianEsimo], n.m. Christianity (as a religion)."


"Fascismo, n.m. (Pol.) Fascism."


"umanesimo, umanismo [umanEsimo], n.m. Humanism."


368



FRENCH


from: Cassell's French Dictionary, Macmillan, 1978 (1962), 156, 338, 406:


"christianiser...To Christianize. CHRISTIANISME, n.m. Christianity."


"fascisme...n. m. Fascism."


"humain...Human....humanisme, n.m. Humanism."



SPANISH


from: Cassell's Spanish — English English — Spanish Dictionary, Macmillan, 1992 (c1978), 199, 311, 358:

 

"CRISTIANISMO, n.m. Christianity."                      [Portuguese: "CRISTIANISMO s. m. CHRISTIANISM: Christian religion."

"fascismo, n.m. fascism."                                      (Novo Michaelis, Dicionário Ilustrado, V. II, 367)].

"humanismo, n.m. humanism."  



GERMAN


from: Langenscheidt's New Muret—Sanders Encyclopedic Dictionary, English-German, Barnes & Noble, 1962, Vol. A-M, 244, 503, 644:


"CHRISTIANISM...CHRISTENTUM n"


"Christianity...1. Christenheit f. —2. Christentum n"


"fascism...pol. Fa̍schismus m."


"humanism....—2. ...Huma̍nismus m."


369



ENGLISH


from: A Table Alphabeticall of Hard Usual English Words (1604), THE FIRST ENGLISH DICTIONARY, by Robert Cawdrey, A Facsimile Reproduction with an Introduction by Robert A. Peters, Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, 1966.


"christ, (g) annointed"                                                      ["(g. or gr.) standeth for Greeke."].


[note: no entries with christ as the root word].


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from: John Bullokar, an English Expositor, 1616 [THE SECOND ENGLISH DICTIONARY], Scolar Press, 1967.


"Christ. The surname of our Sauiour[sic], signifying anointed."


[note: no entries with Christ as the root word].


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from: Henry Cockeram, The English Dictionarie, 1623, Scolar Press, 1968.


          "Henry Cockeram's English Dictionaire is THE THIRD DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH, preceded only by those of Robert Cawdrey (1604) and JOHN BULLOKAR (1616)." ["Note"].


"CHRISTIANISME. The beliefe of Christians."


[note: no entry for christ. CHRISTIANISME is the only entry with the root word christ].


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from: Thomas Blount Glossographia, 1656, Scolar Press, 1969.


          "Thomas Blount's Glossographia was THE FOURTH ENGLISH DICTIONARY to be printed, and appeared thirty-three years after the first edition of Cockeram's English Dictionaire (1623)." ["Note"].


          "Blount's Glossographia represented a considerable advance in lexicographical method over the dictionaries of [first] Cawdrey, [second] Bullokar and [third] Cockeram, and covers a larger proportion of the English vocabulary. Though he was aware of, and used particularly Bullokar's work, he is especially indebted to the Latin dictionary of Francis Holyoke (Dictionarium Etymologicum), a work frequently reprinted in the seventeenth century. Two interesting features of [fourth] Blount's work are his citation of sources (e.g. administrator, affeerours ["complex": see Blount], battalion, etc.), and his inclusion of etymologies." ["Note"].


370



"CHRISTIANISM (CHRISTIANISMUS) Christianity , the being or Profession of a Christian."


[note: no entry for christ. Christianism is the only entry with the root word christ].


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from: Edward Phillips, The New World of English Words, (1658) [reported (by Thomas

Blount) plagiarism of Glossographia, Thomas Blount, 1656], Georg Olms Verlag, 1969.


"Christian, a proper name of women, first derived from the profession itself."


"CHRISTIANISM, the profession of Christian Religion."


[note: no entry for christ. Christian and Christianism are the only entries with the root word christ].


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from: Elisha Coles, An English Dictionary, 1676, Scolar Press, 1971.


          "Coles' English Dictionary, 1676, depends largely for its material on Edward Phillips' New World of English Words, 1658, which in turn borrowed from Thomas Blount's Glossographia, 1656, and which was denounced by Thomas Blount as outright plagiarism of his dictionary." ["Note"].


"CHRISTIANISM, -ity, the profession of the Christian Religion."


"Christ, g. anointed."


[note: Christopher ["g. Christ⋅carrier."], only additional entry with Christ as the root word].


[note: here, Christianism precedes Christ (order, in Greek)].


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from: Nathan Bailey, An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, (1721), Georg Olms Verlag, 1969. [Quotation marks omitted].

 

CHRISTIANISM,                        CHRISTIANISME, F.         

                                                                                               

CHRISTIANITY,                        Christianitas, L.               


[note: Christ is listed. A total of 12 entries, with Christ as the root word].


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371



from: A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words are deduced from their Originals, and Illustrated in their Different Significations by Examples from the best Writers, to which are Prefixed, A History of the Language, and An English Grammar. By Samuel Johnson, A.M. In Two Volumes. Vol. I. London, Printed by W. Strahan, For J. and P. Knapton; T. and T. Longman; C. Hitch and L. Hawes; A. Millar; and R. and J. Dodsley. MDCCLV [first edition].


"Note The Present facsimile is reproduced from a copy in the possession of the Library of the University of Göttingen Shelfmark: Ling. VIII 1900 K.S." Georg Olms (Germany), 1968 [1755]. [Quotation marks omitted]

 

CHRI'STIAN. n. s. [Christianus, Lat.] A professor of the re-

ligon of Christ.

We christians have certainly the best and the holiest, the

wisest and most reasonable religion in the world. Tillotson.

 

CHRI'STIANISM. n. s. [CHRISTIANISMUS, Lat]

1. The christian religion.

2. The nations professing christianity.

CHRISTIA'NITY. n. s. [chrêtiente, French.]The religion of

christians.


[note: no separate entry for Christ. A total of 14 entries, with Christ as the root word].


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from: A Dictionary of the English Language....Samuel Johnson, A.M. In Two Volumes. Vol. I. London....MDCCLV [first edition].


"Published by Times Books Ltd., London ["Printed and bound in Japan by Toppan Printing Co., Ltd."], 1983 [1755]." Facsimile, in 1 Vol. [Quotation marks omitted].

[compare missing portions ("blanks") of this facsimile, with facsimile, above].

 

CHRI'STIANISM. Lat]

                      1. The christian

                      2. The nations

                      CHRISTIA'NITY.                                                          The religion of

                         christians.


[the above "blanks" appear to be the only "blanks" in the dictionary. Motivations?].


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372



from: A Dictionary of the English Language....Samuel Johnson, A.M. In Two Volumes. Vol. 1. The Third Edition. London....MDCCLXV. [Quotation marks omitted].

 

CHRI'STIANISM. n. s. [CHRISTIANISMUS, Latin.]

1. The christian religion.

2. The nations professing christianity.

CHRISTIA'NITY. n. s. [chrêtienté, French.] The religion of

christians.


[note: the above entries, in the Ninth Edition, 1805, are nearly identical. "Latin." is "Lat."; "French." is "Fr."].


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from: The Oxford English Dictionary, 1989, Vol. III, 180; Vol. II, 989:


CHRISTIANISM: "L. CHRISTIANISMUS"


Earliest reference for CHRISTIANISM listed: 1576.


Earliest reference for Christianity (this spelling) listed: 1773.

[previous spellings, such as "cristianite" from 1303].


"CATHOLICISM....[f. Catholic + -ism. Cf. F. catholicisme.]"


"1656 Blount Glossogr., Catholicisme .. [from Blount (to complete definition): "(catholicismus) generality or universality, or"] the orthodox Faith of the Catholick Church."


Earliest reference for CATHOLICISM ["catholicity"] (this spelling) listed: 1647.

["Catholicisme", from 1609].


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from: Encyclopedic Dictionary of Religion, The Sisters of St. Joseph of Philadelphia, Nihil Obstat: John P. Whalen S.T.D., J.D. Censor Deputatus, Imprimatur: William Cardinal Baum Archibishop of Washington D.C. February 7, 1978, Corpus Publications, 1979, Vol. A-E, 677:


"CATHOLICISM, the universal community formed by the teaching, worship, and practice of the Catholic Church, usually understood of the RC [Roman Catholic] Church, which tightens the meaning of the term to intercommunion within a common obedience and discipline. Unlike *CATHOLICITY, which refers to a quality, CATHOLICISM refers to a system [compare: CHRISTIANISM]. After the disruption of East and West, the name "Orthodox was assumed by the Greeks, the name, Catholics by the Latins; after the Reformation those who remained in communion with Rome kept the name, and CATHOLICISM was contrasted with PROTESTANTISM,


373



LUTHERANISM, CALVINISM, and so forth. This is also its ordinary, noncontroversial usage in England, though Roman Catholic is the designation known to English law, and the C of E [Church of England] has never renounced the title of Catholic and claims to be a branch of the universal Church. The term is then given the comprehensive sense of transcending diverse communions, hence *Anglo-Catholicism ["the Oxford movement was rediscovery, not merely protest—a vigorous restatement of the essentially Catholic character of the C of E [Church of England]." (177)]. Good manners and a sense of the occasion and knowing when not to be a stickler for words will dictate whether one centers CATHOLICISM on Rome or leaves it with a more diffuse meaning. [T. Gilby]"



"ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF CHRISTIANS IN THE GREEK-ROMAN WORLD"


from: A Rationalist Encyclopaedia, A Book of Reference on Religion, Philosophy, Ethics, and Science, Joseph McCabe, Gryphon Books, 1971 (Watts, 1948), 100, 101:


"Estimates of the number of Christians in the Greek-Roman world at the end of the third century vary from 5,000,000 (Gibbon and Bury) to the fantastic figure of 50,000,000 (Stäudlin). But even the elaborately calculated figure of 10,000,000 given by Schultze (Geschichte des Untergangs das griechischromischen Heidenthums, 2 vols., 1892) is vitiated because he greatly over-estimates the proportion of members to priests and bishops. The correct figure is probably between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 in a total population of 100,000,000. Eighty years later St. Chrysostom [c. 347 - 407] declared in a sermon (in the year 385) that, of the 500,000 people of Antioch (one of the most Christian cities), only one-fifth were Christians—he added that they were so vicious that he doubted if a hundred of them would be saved [sources?]—and in the previous year [384] Augustine [354 - 430 (St.)] had found Rome overwhelmingly pagan in spite of truculent imperial decrees (Confessions, VIII, 2)."


"That Christianity converted the Greeks and Romans to a higher life is a FICTION that is discredited by all contemporary Christian evidence. The Greek-Roman world was not, in fact, converted to a new religion, but compelled to embrace it. We have still in the Theodosian Code imperial decrees or rescripts of the years 341, 345, 356, 381, 383, 386, and 391 which were won by the bishops from the Emperors. They suppress all rival religions, order the closing of the temples, and impose fines, confiscation, imprisonment, or death upon any who cling to the older religions.

[See Paganism.]"


[See: Theodosian Code, #8, 207; #10, 226-233, 237-240; #13, 324-326].


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